The Oceans! A vast free open space, where humans from their time of existence have exploited and used for trade and transport.
Early civilization, from empires and kingdoms, was centred along the oceans. With trade between nations growing, and the emergence of criminal elements, known as pirates, the first form of laws was established in regards to the sea.
Fast forward to the 18th century, when nations are in the middle of the Industrial Revolution, and nations are in need of minerals for their industries, oil-based exploration started booming, and nations started taking the seas more seriously. Conflicts began to emerge between nations on whose side the resources were located. The order had to be established in the 19th century, and after the Second World War, and creation of the UN, steps were taken towards the creation of a legal framework for the control of the seas.
What does the law of the High Seas state?
Generally viewed as the seas constitution, it was ratified in 1982 with almost 60 countries and came into force in 1992.
The law of the High seas is part of the international law response to regain some order in the seas.it was signed in 1982 December 10th .it covered areas such as territorial water, oceans, and sea lanes, and most important the ocean’s resources. By the early 1900s, the law had been signed by over 150 countries.
Some aspects of the law of the seas
Some of the guidelines agreed to include:
• Each country was awarded at least a maximum of 12 nautical miles (22 km) as part of its sovereign territory
• Foreign vessels could pass through these areas as long as they do not conduct illegal activities such as (spying, nuclear tests, illegal mining, etc.)
• Each country beyond its 12 nautical miles, was allocated around 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its shore. This area known as the Special Economic Zone could be mined and explored for resources by the country’s responsible or conduct any economic activities within this zone
• Ships had the right of innocent passage in international waterways and also on major sea lanes
• Areas beyond these zones known as the high seas would be free for navigation in both the air and water.
• Every country with a coastline has rights of the sea bed and minerals found there such as oil and gas, all the way to about 200 nautical miles
• Any dispute between warring countries would be amicably solved by the International Court of Justice or the UN International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea which is located in Germany
• Any resources mined from the High Seas would need to be reviewed by the UN Maritime Agency and taxes and duties levied on the companies, would be paid to developing countries
All in all the laws are quite long (323 articles) and inclusive and for more analysis of them, would require one to read the specific articles from the UN Law of Seas website
If you require them in writing, then a quick look at some of the law assignment writing: https://www.theunitutor.com/law-assignment-writing-service/ around would be of great help.
The law of the Sea is a great show of how if world countries came together on a good deed. The oceans are an integral part of man’s own existence and should be protected against any activities that could damage it, including pollution